Swarms

Swarms "swarms" Deutsch Übersetzung

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Swarms

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Swarms Video

Login or Register. Save Word. Log In. Keep scrolling for more. Other Words from swarm Verb 1 swarmer noun. Synonyms for swarm Synonyms: Noun army , bike [ chiefly Scottish ], cram , crowd , crush , drove , flock , herd , horde , host , legion , mass , mob , multitude , press , rout , scrum , throng Visit the Thesaurus for More.

Examples of swarm in a Sentence Noun a swarm of tourists descends upon the island every summer. First Known Use of swarm Noun before the 12th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1a Verb 1 14th century, in the meaning defined at intransitive sense 1 Verb 2 14th century, in the meaning defined at intransitive sense.

Learn More about swarm. Time Traveler for swarm The first known use of swarm was before the 12th century See more words from the same century.

From the Editors at Merriam-Webster. Dictionary Entries near swarm sware swarf swarga swarm swarm spore swart swartback See More Nearby Entries.

Words nearby swarm swaption , swaraj , sward , sware , swarf , swarm , swarm cell , swarm intelligence , swart , swarth , swarthout.

Origin of swarm 2 First recorded in —50; origin uncertain. Words related to swarm bevy , throng , horde , herd , mob , flock , teem , stream , gather , congregate , crawl , overrun , school , crowd , army , blowout , host , crush , push , concourse.

Example sentences from the Web for swarm He was prepared to swarm the island—not directly, but through Brooklyn.

When Robert E. An Englishman in Paris Albert D. Albert Dresden Vandam. The Last Shot Frederick Palmer.

A colony of ants can collectively select i. Selection of the best food source is achieved by ants following two simple rules.

First, ants which find food return to the nest depositing a pheromone chemical. More pheromone is laid for higher quality food sources.

Ants in the nest follow another simple rule, to favor stronger trails, on average. More ants then follow the stronger trail, so more ants arrive at the high quality food source, and a positive feedback cycle ensures, resulting in a collective decision for the best food source.

If there are two paths from the ant nest to a food source, then the colony usually selects the shorter path. This is because the ants that first return to the nest from the food source are more likely to be those that took the shorter path.

More ants then retrace the shorter path, reinforcing the pheromone trail. The successful techniques used by ant colonies have been studied in computer science and robotics to produce distributed and fault-tolerant systems for solving problems.

This area of biomimetics has led to studies of ant locomotion, search engines that make use of "foraging trails", fault-tolerant storage and networking algorithms.

Midge flies, such as Tokunagayusurika akamusi , form swarms, dancing in the air. Swarming serves multiple purposes, including the facilitation of mating by attracting females to approach the swarm, a phenomenon known as lek mating.

Such cloud-like swarms often form in early evening when the sun is getting low, at the tip of a bush, on a hilltop, over a pool of water, or even sometimes above a person.

The forming of such swarms is not out of instinct, but an adaptive behavior — a "consensus" — between the individuals within the swarms.

It is also suggested that swarming is a ritual , because there is rarely any male midge by itself and not in a swarm. This could have formed due to the benefit of lowering inbreeding by having males of various genes gathering in one spot.

In temperate climates, honey bees usually form swarms in late spring. A swarm typically contains about half the workers together with the old queen, while the new queen stays back with the remaining workers in the original hive.

When honey bees emerge from a hive to form a swarm, they may gather on a branch of a tree or on a bush only a few meters from the hive.

The bees cluster about the queen and send out 20—50 scouts to find suitable new nest locations. The scouts are the most experienced foragers in the cluster.

If a scout finds a suitable location, she returns to the cluster and promotes it by dancing a version of the waggle dance.

This dance conveys information about the quality, direction, and distance of the new site. The more excited she is about her findings, the more vigorously she dances.

If she can convince others they may take off and check the site she found. If they approve they may promote it as well.

In this decision-making process, scouts check several sites, often abandoning their own original site to promote the superior site of another scout.

Several different sites may be promoted by different scouts at first. After some hours and sometimes days, a preferred location eventually emerges from this decision-making process.

When all scouts agree on the final location, the whole cluster takes off and swarms to it. Sometimes, if no decision is reached, the swarm will separate, some bees going in one direction; others, going in another.

This usually results in failure, with both groups dying. A new location is typically a kilometre or more from the original hive, though some species, e.

This collective decision making process is remarkably successful in identifying the most suitable new nest site and keeping the swarm intact.

A good hive site has to be large enough to accommodate the swarm about 15 litres in volume , has to be well-protected from the elements, receive an optimal amount of sunshine, be some height above the ground, have a small entrance and be capable of resisting ant infestation - that is why tree cavities are often selected.

Similar to ants, cockroaches leave chemical trails in their faeces as well as emitting airborne pheromones for swarming and mating. Other cockroaches will follow these trails to discover sources of food and water, and also discover where other cockroaches are hiding.

Thus, cockroaches can exhibit emergent behaviour , [76] in which group or swarm behaviour emerges from a simple set of individual interactions.

Cockroaches are mainly nocturnal and will run away when exposed to light. A study tested the hypothesis that cockroaches use just two pieces of information to decide where to go under those conditions: how dark it is and how many other cockroaches there are.

The robots were also specially scented so that they would be accepted by the real roaches. Locusts are the swarming phase of the short-horned grasshoppers of the family Acrididae.

Some species can breed rapidly under suitable conditions and subsequently become gregarious and migratory. They form bands as nymphs and swarms as adults—both of which can travel great distances, rapidly stripping fields and greatly damaging crops.

The largest swarms can cover hundreds of square miles and contain billions of locusts. That means one million locusts can eat more than one ton of food each day, and the largest swarms can consume over , tonnes each day.

Swarming in locusts has been found to be associated with increased levels of serotonin which causes the locust to change colour, eat much more, become mutually attracted, and breed much more easily.

Researchers propose that swarming behaviour is a response to overcrowding and studies have shown that increased tactile stimulation of the hind legs or, in some species, simply encountering other individuals causes an increase in levels of serotonin.

The transformation of the locust to the swarming variety can be induced by several contacts per minute over a four-hour period.

An individual locust's response to a loss of alignment in the group appears to increase the randomness of its motion, until an aligned state is again achieved.

This noise-induced alignment appears to be an intrinsic characteristic of collective coherent motion. Insect migration is the seasonal movement of insects , particularly those by species of dragonflies , beetles , butterflies , and moths.

The distance can vary from species to species, but in most cases these movements involve large numbers of individuals.

In some cases the individuals that migrate in one direction may not return and the next generation may instead migrate in the opposite direction.

This is a significant difference from bird migration. Monarch butterflies are especially noted for their lengthy annual migration.

In North America they make massive southward migrations starting in August until the first frost. A northward migration takes place in the spring.

The monarch is the only butterfly that migrates both north and south as the birds do on a regular basis.

But no single individual makes the entire round trip. Female monarchs deposit eggs for the next generation during these migrations.

The last generation of the summer enters into a non-reproductive phase known as diapause and may live seven months or more. The generation that overwinters generally does not reproduce until it leaves the overwintering site sometime in February and March.

It is the second, third and fourth generations that return to their northern locations in the United States and Canada in the spring.

How the species manages to return to the same overwintering spots over a gap of several generations is still a subject of research; the flight patterns appear to be inherited, based on a combination of the position of the sun in the sky [87] and a time-compensated Sun compass that depends upon a circadian clock that is based in their antennae.

Approximately of the world's 10, bird species are long-distance migrants. Also, the longer days of the northern summer provide extended time for breeding birds to feed their young.

This helps diurnal birds to produce larger clutches than related non-migratory species that remain in the tropics.

As the days shorten in autumn, the birds return to warmer regions where the available food supply varies little with the season.

These advantages offset the high stress, physical exertion costs, and other risks of the migration such as predation. Many birds migrate in flocks.

For larger birds, it is assumed that flying in flocks reduces energy costs. The V formation is often supposed to boost the efficiency and range of flying birds, particularly over long migratory routes.

All the birds except the first fly in the upwash from one of the wingtip vortices of the bird ahead. The upwash assists each bird in supporting its own weight in flight, in the same way a glider can climb or maintain height indefinitely in rising air.

Geese flying in a V formation save energy by flying in the updraft of the wingtip vortex generated by the previous animal in the formation.

Thus, the birds flying behind do not need to work as hard to achieve lift. Studies show that birds in a V formation place themselves roughly at the optimum distance predicted by simple aerodynamic theory.

The formation also makes communication easier and allows the birds to maintain visual contact with each other. Other animals may use similar drafting techniques when migrating.

Lobsters , for example, migrate in close single-file formation "lobster trains", sometimes for hundreds of miles. The Mediterranean and other seas present a major obstacle to soaring birds, which must cross at the narrowest points.

Massive numbers of large raptors and storks pass through areas such as Gibraltar , Falsterbo , and the Bosphorus at migration times.

More common species, such as the European honey buzzard , can be counted in hundreds of thousands in autumn.

Other barriers, such as mountain ranges, can also cause funnelling, particularly of large diurnal migrants.

This is a notable factor in the Central American migratory bottleneck. This concentration of birds during migration can put species at risk.

Some spectacular migrants have already gone extinct, the most notable being the passenger pigeon. During migration the flocks were a mile 1.

The term "shoal" can be used to describe any group of fish, including mixed-species groups, while "school" is used for more closely knit groups of the same species swimming in a highly synchronised and polarised manner.

Fish derive many benefits from shoaling behaviour including defence against predators through better predator detection and by diluting the chance of capture , enhanced foraging success, and higher success in finding a mate.

Fish use many traits to choose shoalmates. Generally they prefer larger shoals, shoalmates of their own species, shoalmates similar in size and appearance to themselves, healthy fish, and kin when recognised.

The "oddity effect" posits that any shoal member that stands out in appearance will be preferentially targeted by predators. This may explain why fish prefer to shoal with individuals that resemble them.

The oddity effect would thus tend to homogenise shoals. One puzzling aspect of shoal selection is how a fish can choose to join a shoal of animals similar to themselves, given that it cannot know its own appearance.

Experiments with zebrafish have shown that shoal preference is a learned ability, not innate. A zebrafish tends to associate with shoals that resemble shoals in which it was reared, a form of imprinting.

Other open questions of shoaling behaviour include identifying which individuals are responsible for the direction of shoal movement.

In the case of migratory movement, most members of a shoal seem to know where they are going. In the case of foraging behaviour, captive shoals of golden shiner a kind of minnow are led by a small number of experienced individuals who knew when and where food was available.

Radakov estimated herring schools in the North Atlantic can occupy up to 4. That's several billion fish in one school.

Between May and July huge numbers of sardines spawn in the cool waters of the Agulhas Bank and then follow a current of cold water northward along the east coast of South Africa.

This great migration, called the sardine run , creates spectacular feeding frenzies along the coastline as marine predators, such as dolphins, sharks and gannets attack the schools.

Most krill , small shrimp-like crustaceans , form large swarms, sometimes reaching densities of 10,—60, individual animals per cubic metre.

The largest swarms are visible from space and can be tracked by satellite. By moving vertically through the ocean on a hour cycle, the swarms play a major part in mixing deeper, nutrient-rich water with nutrient-poor water at the surface.

It has been found that the deeper they go, the more they reduce their activity, [] apparently to reduce encounters with predators and to conserve energy.

Later work suggested that swimming activity in krill varied with stomach fullness. Satiated animals that had been feeding at the surface swim less actively and therefore sink below the mixed layer.

Krill with empty stomachs were found to swim more actively and thus head towards the surface. This implies that vertical migration may be a bi- or tri-daily occurrence.

Some species form surface swarms during the day for feeding and reproductive purposes even though such behaviour is dangerous because it makes them extremely vulnerable to predators.

When disturbed, a swarm scatters, and some individuals have even been observed to moult instantaneously, leaving the exuvia behind as a decoy.

The algorithm is based on three main factors: " i movement induced by the presence of other individuals ii foraging activity, and iii random diffusion.

Copepods are a group of tiny crustaceans found in the sea and lakes. Many species are planktonic drifting in sea waters , and others are benthic living on the ocean floor.

Copepods are typically 1 to 2 millimetres 0. Although like other crustaceans they have an armoured exoskeleton , they are so small that in most species this thin armour, and the entire body, is almost totally transparent.

Copepods have a compound, median single eye, usually bright red, in the centre of the transparent head. Copepods also swarm. For example, monospecific swarms have been observed regularly around coral reefs and sea grass , and in lakes.

Swarms densities were about one million copepods per cubic metre. Typical swarms were one or two metres in diameter, but some exceeded 30 cubic metres.

Copepods need visual contact to keep together, and they disperse at night. Spring produces blooms of swarming phytoplankton which provide food for copepods.

Planktonic copepods are usually the dominant members of the zooplankton , and are in turn major food organisms for many other marine animals.

In particular, copepods are prey to forage fish and jellyfish , both of which can assemble in vast, million-strong swarms. Some copepods have extremely fast escape responses when a predator is sensed and can jump with high speed over a few millimetres see animated image below.

Photo: School of herrings ram feeding on a swarm of copepods. Animation showing how herrings hunting in a synchronised way can capture the very alert and evasive copepod click to view.

Planktonic copepods are important to the carbon cycle. Some scientists say they form the largest animal biomass on earth.

Because of their smaller size and relatively faster growth rates, however, and because they are more evenly distributed throughout more of the world's oceans, copepods almost certainly contribute far more to the secondary productivity of the world's oceans, and to the global ocean carbon sink than krill , and perhaps more than all other groups of organisms together.

The surface layers of the oceans are currently believed to be the world's largest carbon sink, absorbing about 2 billion tons of carbon a year, the equivalent to perhaps a third of human carbon emissions , thus reducing their impact.

Many planktonic copepods feed near the surface at night, then sink into deeper water during the day to avoid visual predators.

Their moulted exoskeletons, faecal pellets and respiration at depth all bring carbon to the deep sea.

Many single-celled organisms called phytoplankton live in oceans and lakes. When certain conditions are present, such as high nutrient or light levels, these organisms reproduce explosively.

The resulting dense swarm of phytoplankton is called an algal bloom. Blooms can cover hundreds of square kilometres and are easily seen in satellite images.

Individual phytoplankton rarely live more than a few days, but blooms can last weeks. Scientists have attributed swarm behavior to plants for hundreds of years.

In his book, Phytologia: or, The philosophy of agriculture and gardening , Erasmus Darwin wrote that plant growth resembled swarms observed elsewhere in nature.

Roots, in particular, display observable swarm behavior, growing in patterns that exceed the statistical threshold for random probability, and indicate the presence of communication between individual root apexes.

The primary function of plant roots is the uptake of soil nutrients, and it is this purpose which drives swarm behavior.

Plants growing in close proximity have adapted their growth to assure optimal nutrient availability.

Diese Sätze sind von externen Quellen und können mitunter Fehler enthalten. Fruchtig durch die Datteln. Mobile Marketing Research Der Begriff See more bezeichnet im Zusammenhang mit dem Thema Crowdsourcing eine Menge von Menschen, die gemeinsam an einer Aufgabe oder an der Lösung eines komplexen Problems arbeiten schwarm- definition, crowdsourcing www. They have little electrons that swarm around a central nucleus with neutrons and protons. Based on Swarm Analytics sensor technology, the solution partners deliver a broad range of end-to-end smart city solutions for traffic, parking, public transport, and retail. Swarms gefällt Ihnen das Online Wörterbuch? Unsere tollen Inhaltsstoffe machen lange satt und sind ideal für den kleinen Hunger. Beispiele aus dem Internet nicht von der PONS Redaktion geprüft The seismic swarm 50 km Blatt Skatkarten FranzГ¶sisches of Santorini, at the end of the fault zone The highly unusual swarm of earthquakes SW of Santorini on the main fault zone that https://versaandyou.co/online-casino-top/was-ist-bingres-trading.php defines the volcanic vents of the region continues with Swarms in Beste Zschiesewitz finden Spielothek quakes larger than magnitude 2 during link past 24 hours. English cloud drove horde pour pullulate stream teem. Zur gleichen Zeit sagte Houliaras, dass diese Beben nichts haben zu tun mit dem Vulkan die wir nicht Beste Spielothek Bellmund finden da es eine Korrelation zwischen das Fehlen Beben unter dem Vulkan sowie die seismischen Schwarm von der Insel gibt. Die gesammelten Vokabeln werden unter "Vokabelliste" angezeigt. Beispielsätze aus externen Quellen für "swarm" nicht von der Langenscheidt Redaktion geprüft. You might wonder what exactly is the advantage to being in a swarm, so you can think of. Gewimmel neuter Neutrum n swarm rare selten selten large quantity figurative ly figurativ, in übertragenem Sinn fig.

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They have little electrons that swarm around a central nucleus with neutrons and protons. Dazu kommt eine nussige, leicht bittere Note der Insektenproteine. Schwarm masculine Maskulinum m swarm of people, soldiers et cetera, and so on etc. Faster Algorithms built to simulate the human brain and beat it in speed and accuracy, even on the IoT Edge. DE Schwärme. Fehlt eine Übersetzung, ist Ihnen ein Fehler aufgefallen oder wollen Sie uns einfach mal loben? Die Zukunft der Ernährung: Der Insektenriegel mit nachhaltigem Protein aus Insekten. ✓ Viel Protein ✓ Viel Vitamin B12 ✓ Viele Ballaststoffe. I'll show you a computer model made by Iain Couzin, a researcher at Oxford, that shows how swarms work. expand_more Ich zeige Ihnen ein Computermodell. Many translated example sentences containing "swarms of bees" – German-​English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Übersetzung für 'swarm' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Swarm Analytics creates real-time information about objects in the smart city through video analysis algorithms that ensure privacy by design.

He was prepared to swarm the island—not directly, but through Brooklyn. The Stalwarts hoped to swarm the convention and force a challenge to the delegate roll.

While he was doing that, Marion Barry was still holding court for a swarm of reporters back towards the stage.

Normally an air accident investigation would involve a swarm of hard-nosed engineers and scientists poring over wreckage. The parasites and harpies which M.

Kenniston, unable to turn from the life-or-death business of threading the swarm , heard the Jovian fighting furiously.

The cause of her peevishness was a swarm of intensely active flies. Peterkin was quite safe, hugging the bottom of the shell crater under a swarm of hornets.

Colton's patent hive, it is said, can be made to swarm "at any time within two days," merely for want of room. Are you learning new vocabulary?

Or do you just have an interest in words? Either way, this quiz is for you. Middle English swarmen, derivative of the noun.

It produces complex, seemingly intelligent structures, without need for any planning, control, or even direct communication between the agents.

As such it supports efficient collaboration between extremely simple agents, who lack any memory, intelligence or even awareness of each other.

Swarm intelligence is the collective behaviour of decentralized , self-organized systems, natural or artificial.

The concept is employed in work on artificial intelligence. The expression was introduced by Gerardo Beni and Jing Wang in , in the context of cellular robotic systems.

Swarm intelligence systems are typically made up of a population of simple agents such as boids interacting locally with one another and with their environment.

The agents follow very simple rules, and although there is no centralized control structure dictating how individual agents should behave, local, and to a certain degree random, interactions between such agents lead to the emergence of intelligent global behaviour, unknown to the individual agents.

Swarm intelligence research is multidisciplinary. It can be divided into natural swarm research studying biological systems and artificial swarm research studying human artefacts.

There is also a scientific stream attempting to model the swarm systems themselves and understand their underlying mechanisms, and an engineering stream focused on applying the insights developed by the scientific stream to solve practical problems in other areas.

Swarm algorithms follow a Lagrangian approach or an Eulerian approach. It is a hydrodynamic approach, and can be useful for modelling the overall dynamics of large swarms.

Individual particle models can follow information on heading and spacing that is lost in the Eulerian approach. Ant colony optimization is a widely used algorithm which was inspired by the behaviours of ants, and has been effective solving discrete optimization problems related to swarming.

Species that have multiple queens may have a queen leaving the nest along with some workers to found a colony at a new site, a process akin to swarming in honeybees.

Simulations demonstrate that a suitable "nearest neighbour rule" eventually results in all the particles swarming together, or moving in the same direction.

This emerges, even though there is no centralized coordination, and even though the neighbours for each particle constantly change over time.

It has become a challenge in theoretical physics to find minimal statistical models that capture these behaviours. Particle swarm optimization is another algorithm widely used to solve problems related to swarms.

It was developed in by Kennedy and Eberhart and was first aimed at simulating the social behaviour and choreography of bird flocks and fish schools.

The system initially seeds a population with random solutions. It then searches in the problem space through successive generations using stochastic optimization to find the best solutions.

The solutions it finds are called particles. Each particle stores its position as well as the best solution it has achieved so far.

The particle swarm optimizer tracks the best local value obtained so far by any particle in the local neighbourhood.

The remaining particles then move through the problem space following the lead of the optimum particles.

At each time iteration, the particle swarm optimiser accelerates each particle toward its optimum locations according to simple mathematical rules.

Particle swarm optimization has been applied in many areas. It has few parameters to adjust, and a version that works well for a specific applications can also work well with minor modifications across a range of related applications.

Researchers in Switzerland have developed an algorithm based on Hamilton's rule of kin selection. The algorithm shows how altruism in a swarm of entities can, over time, evolve and result in more effective swarm behaviour.

The earliest evidence of swarm behaviour in animals dates back about million years. Fossils of the trilobite Ampyx priscus have been recently described as clustered in lines along the ocean floor.

The animals were all mature adults, and were all facing the same direction as though they had formed a conga line or a peloton.

It has been suggested they line up in this manner to migrate, much as spiny lobsters migrate in single-file queues. The findings suggest animal collective behaviour has very early evolutionary origins.

Examples of biological swarming are found in bird flocks , [51] fish schools , [52] [53] insect swarms , [54] bacteria swarms , [55] [56] molds, [57] molecular motors , [58] quadruped herds [59] and people.

The behaviour of insects that live in colonies , such as ants, bees, wasps and termites, has always been a source of fascination for children, naturalists and artists.

Individual insects seem to do their own thing without any central control, yet the colony as a whole behaves in a highly coordinated manner.

The group coordination that emerges is often just a consequence of the way individuals in the colony interact. These interactions can be remarkably simple, such as one ant merely following the trail left by another ant.

Yet put together, the cumulative effect of such behaviours can solve highly complex problems, such as locating the shortest route in a network of possible paths to a food source.

The organised behaviour that emerges in this way is sometimes called swarm intelligence. Individual ants do not exhibit complex behaviours, yet a colony of ants collectively achieves complex tasks such as constructing nests, taking care of their young, building bridges and foraging for food.

A colony of ants can collectively select i. Selection of the best food source is achieved by ants following two simple rules.

First, ants which find food return to the nest depositing a pheromone chemical. More pheromone is laid for higher quality food sources.

Ants in the nest follow another simple rule, to favor stronger trails, on average. More ants then follow the stronger trail, so more ants arrive at the high quality food source, and a positive feedback cycle ensures, resulting in a collective decision for the best food source.

If there are two paths from the ant nest to a food source, then the colony usually selects the shorter path.

This is because the ants that first return to the nest from the food source are more likely to be those that took the shorter path. More ants then retrace the shorter path, reinforcing the pheromone trail.

The successful techniques used by ant colonies have been studied in computer science and robotics to produce distributed and fault-tolerant systems for solving problems.

This area of biomimetics has led to studies of ant locomotion, search engines that make use of "foraging trails", fault-tolerant storage and networking algorithms.

Midge flies, such as Tokunagayusurika akamusi , form swarms, dancing in the air. Swarming serves multiple purposes, including the facilitation of mating by attracting females to approach the swarm, a phenomenon known as lek mating.

Such cloud-like swarms often form in early evening when the sun is getting low, at the tip of a bush, on a hilltop, over a pool of water, or even sometimes above a person.

The forming of such swarms is not out of instinct, but an adaptive behavior — a "consensus" — between the individuals within the swarms.

It is also suggested that swarming is a ritual , because there is rarely any male midge by itself and not in a swarm.

This could have formed due to the benefit of lowering inbreeding by having males of various genes gathering in one spot.

In temperate climates, honey bees usually form swarms in late spring. A swarm typically contains about half the workers together with the old queen, while the new queen stays back with the remaining workers in the original hive.

When honey bees emerge from a hive to form a swarm, they may gather on a branch of a tree or on a bush only a few meters from the hive.

The bees cluster about the queen and send out 20—50 scouts to find suitable new nest locations. The scouts are the most experienced foragers in the cluster.

If a scout finds a suitable location, she returns to the cluster and promotes it by dancing a version of the waggle dance.

This dance conveys information about the quality, direction, and distance of the new site. The more excited she is about her findings, the more vigorously she dances.

If she can convince others they may take off and check the site she found. If they approve they may promote it as well.

In this decision-making process, scouts check several sites, often abandoning their own original site to promote the superior site of another scout.

Several different sites may be promoted by different scouts at first. After some hours and sometimes days, a preferred location eventually emerges from this decision-making process.

When all scouts agree on the final location, the whole cluster takes off and swarms to it. Sometimes, if no decision is reached, the swarm will separate, some bees going in one direction; others, going in another.

This usually results in failure, with both groups dying. A new location is typically a kilometre or more from the original hive, though some species, e.

This collective decision making process is remarkably successful in identifying the most suitable new nest site and keeping the swarm intact.

A good hive site has to be large enough to accommodate the swarm about 15 litres in volume , has to be well-protected from the elements, receive an optimal amount of sunshine, be some height above the ground, have a small entrance and be capable of resisting ant infestation - that is why tree cavities are often selected.

Similar to ants, cockroaches leave chemical trails in their faeces as well as emitting airborne pheromones for swarming and mating.

Other cockroaches will follow these trails to discover sources of food and water, and also discover where other cockroaches are hiding.

Thus, cockroaches can exhibit emergent behaviour , [76] in which group or swarm behaviour emerges from a simple set of individual interactions.

Cockroaches are mainly nocturnal and will run away when exposed to light. A study tested the hypothesis that cockroaches use just two pieces of information to decide where to go under those conditions: how dark it is and how many other cockroaches there are.

The robots were also specially scented so that they would be accepted by the real roaches. Locusts are the swarming phase of the short-horned grasshoppers of the family Acrididae.

Some species can breed rapidly under suitable conditions and subsequently become gregarious and migratory.

They form bands as nymphs and swarms as adults—both of which can travel great distances, rapidly stripping fields and greatly damaging crops.

The largest swarms can cover hundreds of square miles and contain billions of locusts. That means one million locusts can eat more than one ton of food each day, and the largest swarms can consume over , tonnes each day.

Swarming in locusts has been found to be associated with increased levels of serotonin which causes the locust to change colour, eat much more, become mutually attracted, and breed much more easily.

Researchers propose that swarming behaviour is a response to overcrowding and studies have shown that increased tactile stimulation of the hind legs or, in some species, simply encountering other individuals causes an increase in levels of serotonin.

The transformation of the locust to the swarming variety can be induced by several contacts per minute over a four-hour period.

An individual locust's response to a loss of alignment in the group appears to increase the randomness of its motion, until an aligned state is again achieved.

This noise-induced alignment appears to be an intrinsic characteristic of collective coherent motion. Insect migration is the seasonal movement of insects , particularly those by species of dragonflies , beetles , butterflies , and moths.

The distance can vary from species to species, but in most cases these movements involve large numbers of individuals. In some cases the individuals that migrate in one direction may not return and the next generation may instead migrate in the opposite direction.

This is a significant difference from bird migration. Monarch butterflies are especially noted for their lengthy annual migration.

In North America they make massive southward migrations starting in August until the first frost. A northward migration takes place in the spring.

The monarch is the only butterfly that migrates both north and south as the birds do on a regular basis. But no single individual makes the entire round trip.

Female monarchs deposit eggs for the next generation during these migrations. The last generation of the summer enters into a non-reproductive phase known as diapause and may live seven months or more.

The generation that overwinters generally does not reproduce until it leaves the overwintering site sometime in February and March.

It is the second, third and fourth generations that return to their northern locations in the United States and Canada in the spring.

How the species manages to return to the same overwintering spots over a gap of several generations is still a subject of research; the flight patterns appear to be inherited, based on a combination of the position of the sun in the sky [87] and a time-compensated Sun compass that depends upon a circadian clock that is based in their antennae.

Approximately of the world's 10, bird species are long-distance migrants. Also, the longer days of the northern summer provide extended time for breeding birds to feed their young.

This helps diurnal birds to produce larger clutches than related non-migratory species that remain in the tropics.

As the days shorten in autumn, the birds return to warmer regions where the available food supply varies little with the season.

These advantages offset the high stress, physical exertion costs, and other risks of the migration such as predation.

Many birds migrate in flocks. For larger birds, it is assumed that flying in flocks reduces energy costs.

The V formation is often supposed to boost the efficiency and range of flying birds, particularly over long migratory routes.

All the birds except the first fly in the upwash from one of the wingtip vortices of the bird ahead.

The upwash assists each bird in supporting its own weight in flight, in the same way a glider can climb or maintain height indefinitely in rising air.

Geese flying in a V formation save energy by flying in the updraft of the wingtip vortex generated by the previous animal in the formation.

Thus, the birds flying behind do not need to work as hard to achieve lift. Studies show that birds in a V formation place themselves roughly at the optimum distance predicted by simple aerodynamic theory.

The formation also makes communication easier and allows the birds to maintain visual contact with each other. Other animals may use similar drafting techniques when migrating.

Lobsters , for example, migrate in close single-file formation "lobster trains", sometimes for hundreds of miles. The Mediterranean and other seas present a major obstacle to soaring birds, which must cross at the narrowest points.

Massive numbers of large raptors and storks pass through areas such as Gibraltar , Falsterbo , and the Bosphorus at migration times.

More common species, such as the European honey buzzard , can be counted in hundreds of thousands in autumn. Other barriers, such as mountain ranges, can also cause funnelling, particularly of large diurnal migrants.

This is a notable factor in the Central American migratory bottleneck. This concentration of birds during migration can put species at risk.

Some spectacular migrants have already gone extinct, the most notable being the passenger pigeon.

During migration the flocks were a mile 1. The term "shoal" can be used to describe any group of fish, including mixed-species groups, while "school" is used for more closely knit groups of the same species swimming in a highly synchronised and polarised manner.

Fish derive many benefits from shoaling behaviour including defence against predators through better predator detection and by diluting the chance of capture , enhanced foraging success, and higher success in finding a mate.

Fish use many traits to choose shoalmates. Generally they prefer larger shoals, shoalmates of their own species, shoalmates similar in size and appearance to themselves, healthy fish, and kin when recognised.

The "oddity effect" posits that any shoal member that stands out in appearance will be preferentially targeted by predators. This may explain why fish prefer to shoal with individuals that resemble them.

The oddity effect would thus tend to homogenise shoals. One puzzling aspect of shoal selection is how a fish can choose to join a shoal of animals similar to themselves, given that it cannot know its own appearance.

Experiments with zebrafish have shown that shoal preference is a learned ability, not innate. A zebrafish tends to associate with shoals that resemble shoals in which it was reared, a form of imprinting.

Other open questions of shoaling behaviour include identifying which individuals are responsible for the direction of shoal movement.

In the case of migratory movement, most members of a shoal seem to know where they are going. In the case of foraging behaviour, captive shoals of golden shiner a kind of minnow are led by a small number of experienced individuals who knew when and where food was available.

Radakov estimated herring schools in the North Atlantic can occupy up to 4. That's several billion fish in one school. Between May and July huge numbers of sardines spawn in the cool waters of the Agulhas Bank and then follow a current of cold water northward along the east coast of South Africa.

This great migration, called the sardine run , creates spectacular feeding frenzies along the coastline as marine predators, such as dolphins, sharks and gannets attack the schools.

Most krill , small shrimp-like crustaceans , form large swarms, sometimes reaching densities of 10,—60, individual animals per cubic metre.

The largest swarms are visible from space and can be tracked by satellite. By moving vertically through the ocean on a hour cycle, the swarms play a major part in mixing deeper, nutrient-rich water with nutrient-poor water at the surface.

It has been found that the deeper they go, the more they reduce their activity, [] apparently to reduce encounters with predators and to conserve energy.

Later work suggested that swimming activity in krill varied with stomach fullness. Satiated animals that had been feeding at the surface swim less actively and therefore sink below the mixed layer.

Krill with empty stomachs were found to swim more actively and thus head towards the surface.

This implies that vertical migration may be a bi- or tri-daily occurrence. Some species form surface swarms during the day for feeding and reproductive purposes even though such behaviour is dangerous because it makes them extremely vulnerable to predators.

When disturbed, a swarm scatters, and some individuals have even been observed to moult instantaneously, leaving the exuvia behind as a decoy.

The algorithm is based on three main factors: " i movement induced by the presence of other individuals ii foraging activity, and iii random diffusion.

Copepods are a group of tiny crustaceans found in the sea and lakes. Many species are planktonic drifting in sea waters , and others are benthic living on the ocean floor.

Copepods are typically 1 to 2 millimetres 0. Although like other crustaceans they have an armoured exoskeleton , they are so small that in most species this thin armour, and the entire body, is almost totally transparent.

Copepods have a compound, median single eye, usually bright red, in the centre of the transparent head. Copepods also swarm.

For example, monospecific swarms have been observed regularly around coral reefs and sea grass , and in lakes.

Swarms densities were about one million copepods per cubic metre. Typical swarms were one or two metres in diameter, but some exceeded 30 cubic metres.

Copepods need visual contact to keep together, and they disperse at night. Spring produces blooms of swarming phytoplankton which provide food for copepods.

Planktonic copepods are usually the dominant members of the zooplankton , and are in turn major food organisms for many other marine animals.

In particular, copepods are prey to forage fish and jellyfish , both of which can assemble in vast, million-strong swarms.

Some copepods have extremely fast escape responses when a predator is sensed and can jump with high speed over a few millimetres see animated image below.

Photo: School of herrings ram feeding on a swarm of copepods. Animation showing how herrings hunting in a synchronised way can capture the very alert and evasive copepod click to view.

Planktonic copepods are important to the carbon cycle. Some scientists say they form the largest animal biomass on earth.

Because of their smaller size and relatively faster growth rates, however, and because they are more evenly distributed throughout more of the world's oceans, copepods almost certainly contribute far more to the secondary productivity of the world's oceans, and to the global ocean carbon sink than krill , and perhaps more than all other groups of organisms together.

The surface layers of the oceans are currently believed to be the world's largest carbon sink, absorbing about 2 billion tons of carbon a year, the equivalent to perhaps a third of human carbon emissions , thus reducing their impact.

Many planktonic copepods feed near the surface at night, then sink into deeper water during the day to avoid visual predators. Their moulted exoskeletons, faecal pellets and respiration at depth all bring carbon to the deep sea.

Many single-celled organisms called phytoplankton live in oceans and lakes. When certain conditions are present, such as high nutrient or light levels, these organisms reproduce explosively.

The resulting dense swarm of phytoplankton is called an algal bloom. Blooms can cover hundreds of square kilometres and are easily seen in satellite images.

Individual phytoplankton rarely live more than a few days, but blooms can last weeks. Scientists have attributed swarm behavior to plants for hundreds of years.

In his book, Phytologia: or, The philosophy of agriculture and gardening , Erasmus Darwin wrote that plant growth resembled swarms observed elsewhere in nature.

Roots, in particular, display observable swarm behavior, growing in patterns that exceed the statistical threshold for random probability, and indicate the presence of communication between individual root apexes.

The primary function of plant roots is the uptake of soil nutrients, and it is this purpose which drives swarm behavior.

Plants growing in close proximity have adapted their growth to assure optimal nutrient availability.

This is accomplished by growing in a direction that optimizes the distance between nearby roots, thereby increasing their chance of exploiting untapped nutrient reserves.

The action of this behavior takes two forms: maximization of distance from, and repulsion by, neighboring root apexes.

Plant responses are often complex, integrating multiple inputs to inform an autonomous response.

Additional inputs that inform swarm growth includes light and gravity, both of which are also monitored in the transition zone of a root's apex.

Horizontal growth of roots, whether in response to high mineral content in soil or due to stolon growth, produces branched growth that establish to also form their own, independent root swarms.

Swarming also describes groupings of some kinds of predatory bacteria such as myxobacteria. Myxobacteria swarm together in "wolf packs", actively moving using a process known as bacterial gliding and keeping together with the help of intercellular molecular signals.

A collection of people can also exhibit swarm behaviour, such as pedestrians [] or soldiers swarming the parapets [ dubious — discuss ].

In Cologne, Germany, two biologists from the University of Leeds demonstrated flock like behaviour in humans.

The group of people exhibited similar behavioural pattern to a flock, where if five percent of the flock changed direction the others would follow.

If one person was designated as a predator and everyone else was to avoid him, the flock behaved very much like a school of fish.

The mathematical modelling of flocking behaviour is a common technology, and has found uses in animation.

Flocking simulations have been used in many films [] to generate crowds which move realistically.

Tim Burton's Batman Returns was the first movie to make use of swarm technology for rendering, realistically depicting the movements of a group of bats using the boids system.

The Lord of the Rings film trilogy made use of similar technology, known as Massive , during battle scenes. Swarm technology is particularly attractive because it is cheap, robust, and simple.

An ant-based computer simulation using only six interaction rules has also been used to evaluate aircraft boarding behaviour. An airline system developed by Douglas A.

Lawson uses swarm theory, or swarm intelligence —the idea that a colony of ants works better than one alone.

Each pilot acts like an ant searching for the best airport gate. As a result, the "colony" of pilots always go to gates they can arrive and depart quickly.

The program can even alert a pilot of plane back-ups before they happen. Swarm behaviour occurs also in traffic flow dynamics, such as the traffic wave.

Bidirectional traffic can be observed in ant trails. Herd behaviour in marketing has been used to explain the dependencies of customers' mutual behaviour.

The Economist reported a recent conference in Rome on the subject of the simulation of adaptive human behaviour. A "swarm-moves" model was introduced by a Florida Institute of Technology researcher, which is appealing to supermarkets because it can "increase sales without the need to give people discounts.

The application of swarm principles to robots is called swarm robotics , while swarm intelligence refers to the more general set of algorithms.

Partially inspired by colonies of insects such as ants and bees, researchers are modelling the behaviour of swarms of thousands of tiny robots which together perform a useful task, such as finding something hidden, cleaning, or spying.

Each robot is quite simple, but the emergent behaviour of the swarm is more complex. The largest swarms so far created is the robot Kilobot swarm.

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