Analogy Deutsch

Analogy Deutsch Beispiele aus dem Internet (nicht von der PONS Redaktion geprüft)

Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für analogy im Online-Wörterbuch versaandyou.co (​Deutschwörterbuch). versaandyou.co | Übersetzungen für 'analogy' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'analogy' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für analogy im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Übersetzung für 'analogy' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache.

Analogy Deutsch

Übersetzung im Kontext von „analogy“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: by analogy, by analogy with, reasoning by analogy. Übersetzung für 'analogy' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "analogies" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen.

Analogy Deutsch Video

The Egg - A Short Story Bitte beachten Sie, dass die Vokabeln in der Vokabelliste nur in diesem Browser zur Verfügung stehen. DE Analogon Gegenstück Nachbildung analog. Fehlt eine Übersetzung, ist Ihnen Beste Spielothek in Gossl Fehler aufgefallen oder wollen Sie uns einfach mal FГјr 2020 Spielhallen Gesetze Neue Parallelen lassen sich gewiss zu dem Maler, Grafiker und Bildhauer Ernst Ludwig Kirchner ziehender ebenfalls in Davos arbeitete und mit dem Bauknecht persönlichen Kontakt pflegte und auch gemeinsam ausstellte. Ascough untersucht griechisch-römische Vereine und zieht sie zum Vergleich heran, um frühe christliche Gemeinden besser verstehen zu können.

Where are Word Analogy tests used? They are commonly found in verbal aptitude tests used by employers for candidate selection. Try a free Word Analogy Test.

This free practice test contains 6 test questions and has a time limit of 3 minutes. Practice on 43 word analogy questions and a total of verbal aptitude questions with detailed description and score statistics.

Practice Word Analogy Test. Learn More. Analogy and abstraction are different cognitive processes, and analogy is often an easier one.

This analogy is not comparing all the properties between a hand and a foot, but rather comparing the relationship between a hand and its palm to a foot and its sole.

A computer algorithm has achieved human-level performance on multiple-choice analogy questions from the SAT test. The algorithm measures the similarity of relations between pairs of words e.

It answers SAT questions by selecting the choice with the highest relational similarity. Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle used a wider notion of analogy.

They saw analogy as a shared abstraction. These authors also accepted that comparisons, metaphors and "images" allegories could be used as arguments , and sometimes they called them analogies.

Analogies should also make those abstractions easier to understand and give confidence to the ones using them.

The Middle Age saw an increased use and theorization of analogy. Roman lawyers had already used analogical reasoning and the Greek word analogia.

Medieval lawyers distinguished analogia legis and analogia iuris see below. In Islamic logic , analogical reasoning was used for the process of qiyas in Islamic sharia law and fiqh jurisprudence.

In Christian theology , analogical arguments were accepted in order to explain the attributes of God. Aquinas made a distinction between equivocal , univocal and analogical terms, the last being those like healthy that have different but related meanings.

Not only a person can be "healthy", but also the food that is good for health see the contemporary distinction between polysemy and homonymy.

Thomas Cajetan wrote an influential treatise on analogy. In all of these cases, the wide Platonic and Aristotelian notion of analogy was preserved.

James Francis Ross in Portraying Analogy , the first substantive examination of the topic since Cajetan's De Nominum Analogia , demonstrated that analogy is a systematic and universal feature of natural languages, with identifiable and law-like characteristics which explain how the meanings of words in a sentence are interdependent.

On the contrary, Ibn Taymiyya , [7] [8] [9] Francis Bacon and later John Stuart Mill argued that analogy is simply a special case of induction.

This view does not accept analogy as an autonomous mode of thought or inference, reducing it to induction. However, autonomous analogical arguments are still useful in science, philosophy and the humanities see below , which makes this reduction philosophically uninteresting.

Moreover, induction tries to achieve general conclusions, while analogy looks for particular ones. Contemporary cognitive scientists use a wide notion of analogy, extensionally close to that of Plato and Aristotle, but framed by Gentner's structure mapping theory.

Structure mapping theory concerns both psychology and computer science. According to this view, analogy depends on the mapping or alignment of the elements of source and target.

The mapping takes place not only between objects, but also between relations of objects and between relations of relations. The whole mapping yields the assignment of a predicate or a relation to the target.

Structure mapping theory has been applied and has found considerable confirmation in psychology. It has had reasonable success in computer science and artificial intelligence see below.

Some studies extended the approach to specific subjects, such as metaphor and similarity. Keith Holyoak and Paul Thagard developed their multiconstraint theory within structure mapping theory.

They defend that the " coherence " of an analogy depends on structural consistency, semantic similarity and purpose. Structural consistency is maximal when the analogy is an isomorphism , although lower levels are admitted.

Similarity demands that the mapping connects similar elements and relations of source and target, at any level of abstraction.

It is maximal when there are identical relations and when connected elements have many identical attributes.

An analogy achieves its purpose insofar as it helps solve the problem at hand. The multiconstraint theory faces some difficulties when there are multiple sources, but these can be overcome.

A problem for the multiconstraint theory arises from its concept of similarity, which, in this respect, is not obviously different from analogy itself.

Computer applications demand that there are some identical attributes or relations at some level of abstraction.

The model was extended Doumas, Hummel, and Sandhofer, to learn relations from unstructured examples providing the only current account of how symbolic representations can be learned from examples.

Mark Keane and Brayshaw developed their Incremental Analogy Machine IAM to include working memory constraints as well as structural, semantic and pragmatic constraints, so that a subset of the base analog is selected and mapping from base to target occurs in a serial manner.

Eqaan Doug and his team [16] challenged the shared structure theory and mostly its applications in computer science.

They argue that there is no line between perception , including high-level perception, and analogical thought.

In fact, analogy occurs not only after, but also before and at the same time as high-level perception. In high-level perception, humans make representations by selecting relevant information from low-level stimuli.

Perception is necessary for analogy, but analogy is also necessary for high-level perception. Chalmers et al. Forbus et al. Reasoning by analogy is a process of, from a given pair x , f x , extrapolating the function f.

In the standard modeling, analogical reasoning involves two "objects": the source and the target. The target is supposed to be incomplete and in need for a complete description using the source.

The target has an existing part S t and a missing part R t. We assume that we can isolate a situation of the source S s , which corresponds to a situation of target S t , and the result of the source R s , which correspond to the result of the target R t.

This principle leads to minimize the complexity K target Source of producing the target, given the source.

This is unattractive in Artificial Intelligence, as it requires a computation over abstract Turing machines.

Suppose that M s and M t are local theories of the source and the target, available to the observer. The best analogy between a source case and a target case is the analogy that minimizes:.

The analogical hypothesis, which solves an analogy between a source case and a target case, has two parts:. However, a cognitive agent may simply reduce the amount of information necessary for the interpretation of the source and the target, without taking into account the cost of data replication.

So, it may prefer to the minimization of 2 the minimization of the following simplified expression:. Logicians analyze how analogical reasoning is used in arguments from analogy.

An analogy can be stated using is to and as when representing the analogous relationship between two pairs of expressions, for example, "Smile is to mouth, as wink is to eye.

Some types of analogies can have a precise mathematical formulation through the concept of isomorphism. In detail, this means that given two mathematical structures of the same type, an analogy between them can be thought of as a bijection between them which preserves some or all of the relevant structure.

Category theory takes the idea of mathematical analogy much further with the concept of functors. Given two categories C and D, a functor f from C to D can be thought of as an analogy between C and D, because f has to map objects of C to objects of D and arrows of C to arrows of D in such a way that the compositional structure of the two categories is preserved.

This is similar to the structure mapping theory of analogy of Dedre Gentner, in that it formalizes the idea of analogy as a function which satisfies certain conditions.

Steven Phillips and William H. Wilson [26] [27] use category theory to mathematically demonstrate how the analogical reasoning in the human mind, that is free of the spurious inferences that plague conventional artificial intelligence models, called systematicity , could arise naturally from the use of relationships between the internal arrows that keep the internal structures of the categories rather than the mere relationships between the objects called "representational states".

Thus, the mind may use analogies between domains whose internal structures fit according with a natural transformation and reject those that do not.

See also case-based reasoning. In anatomy , two anatomical structures are considered to be analogous when they serve similar functions but are not evolutionarily related, such as the legs of vertebrates and the legs of insects.

Analogous structures are the result of convergent evolution and should be contrasted with homologous structures.

Often a physical prototype is built to model and represent some other physical object. For example, wind tunnels are used to test scale models of wings and aircraft, which act as an analogy to full-size wings and aircraft.

For example, the MONIAC an analog computer used the flow of water in its pipes as an analog to the flow of money in an economy.

Where there is dependence and hence interaction between a pair or more of biological or physical participants communication occurs and the stresses produced describe internal models inside the participants.

Pask in his conversation theory asserts there exists an analogy exhibiting both similarities and differences between any pair of the participants' internal models or concepts.

Analogical reasoning plays a very important part in morality. This may be in part because morality is supposed to be impartial and fair.

If it is wrong to do something in a situation A, and situation B is analogous to A in all relevant features, then it is also wrong to perform that action in situation B.

Moral particularism accepts analogical moral reasoning, rejecting both deduction and induction, since only the former can do without moral principles.

In law , analogy is primarily used to resolve issues on which there is no previous authority.

A distinction can be made between analogical reasoning employed in statutory law and analogical reasoning present in precedential law case law.

In statutory law analogy is used in order to fill the so-called lacunas or gaps or loopholes. First, a gap arises when a specific case or legal issue is not explicitly dealt with in written law.

Then, one may try to identify a statutory provision which covers the cases that are similar to the case at hand and apply to this case this provision by analogy.

Such a gap, in civil law countries, is referred to as a gap extra legem outside of the law , while analogy which liquidates it is termed analogy extra legem outside of the law.

The very case at hand is named: an unprovided case. Second, a gap comes into being when there is a statutory provision which applies to the case at hand but this provision leads in this case to an unwanted outcome.

Then, upon analogy to another statutory provision that covers cases similar to the case at hand, this case is resolved upon this provision instead of the provision that applies to it directly.

This gap is called a gap contra legem against the law , while analogy which fills this gap is referred to as analogy contra legem against the law.

Third, a gap occurs when there is a statutory provision which regulates the case at hand, but this provision is vague or equivocal.

A gap of this type is named gap intra legem within the law and analogy which deals with it is referred to as analogy intra legem within the law.

The similarity upon which statutory analogy depends on may stem from the resemblance of raw facts of the cases being compared, the purpose the so-called ratio legis which is generally the will of the legislature of a statutory provision which is applied by analogy or some other sources.

Statutory analogy may be also based upon more than one statutory provision or even a spirit of law. In the latter case, it is called analogy iuris from the law in general as opposed to analogy legis from a specific legal provision or provisions.

First, in precedential law case law , analogies can be drawn from precedent cases cases decided in past.

The judge who decides the case at hand may find that the facts of this case are similar to the facts of one of precedential cases to an extent that the outcomes of these cases are justified to be the same or similar.

Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "analogies" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung im Kontext von „analogy“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: by analogy, by analogy with, reasoning by analogy. Übersetzung im Kontext von „in analogy to“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: This also follows in analogy to the monks' vows. Übersetzung für 'analogies' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung für 'analogy' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen.

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The sentence contains offensive content. Cancel Submit. Your feedback will be reviewed. C2 a comparison between things that have similar features , often used to help explain a principle or idea :.

He drew an analogy between the brain and a vast computer. Comparing and contrasting. You can also find related words, phrases, and synonyms in the topics: Typifying, illustrating and exemplifying.

Similar and the same. Want to learn more? Related word analogous adjective. The stock market recorded a 0. Examples of analogy.

Despite this, there are striking analogies between the philosophical responses to the problem of underdetermination in the two contexts.

From the Cambridge English Corpus. The analogy to medicine is telling here, as well. These examples are from the Cambridge English Corpus and from sources on the web.

Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors.

In its most common use, analogy has to do with comparison of things based on those things being alike in some way. For example, one can make or draw an analogy between the seasons of the year and the stages of life.

People also reason by way of analogy, asserting, for example, that abandoning a project is like leaving a house partway built.

Although an analogy can be summarized quickly, as in these examples, an analogy actually encompasses the comparison or inference itself, and is therefore different from figures of speech , like metaphors and similes , which are forms of expression.

Some tests ask you to identify analogies, finding the second of a pair that has the same relationship as a completed pair. The word analogy which comes from analogous traces back by way of Latin to a Greek word meaning "proportionate.

Take the following analogy : I've designed a great new lock pick, and I'm going to give this great new gadget away to show everyone that the typical door lock is ineffective against my new pick.

Dvorak , PC Magazine , 4 Apr. The better analogy , really, is that the royals are the movie stars of Britain. The fine structure seen there is called cirrus, by analogy with filamentary clouds on Earth.

Trump's arrival. Send us feedback. See more words from the same century Dictionary Entries near analogy analogous pole analogue analogue computer analogy analogy test analphabet anal pit.

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Analogy Deutsch - "analogies" Deutsch Übersetzung

In Anknüpfung an das aristotelische Motiv einer Analogie zwischen natürlichen Formkräften und menschlicher Technik wurde in der mittelalterlichen Naturphilosophie die natura naturans zur Künstlerin und Technikerin, die ihr Material in unendlicher Variation formt und qualifiziert.. Molekularer Propeller ist ein Molekül, das bei einer Drehbewegung Flüssigkeiten antreiben kann, aufgrund seiner speziellen Form, die in Analogie zum makroskopischen Propeller ausgebildet ist. In analogy to the term "Personal Computer" the notion "Personal Robot" is already used in the context of machines which are intended to support their owners in accomplishing day-to-day tasks. Analogie einer unglücklichen Ehe für Europas aktuelle Malaise ist deprimierend, aber hilfreich. To fund the war in , the government seriously violated the tenet of central bank independence as established by the Bank Act and the prohibition of issuing banknotes to fund the state. The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word. People also reason by way of analogy, asserting, for example, that abandoning a project is like leaving a house partway built. Sleeman Ed. All rights reserved. It is here used by Beste Spielothek in WС†lsau finden of schools around the country. Forbus et al. Image credits. The best analogy between a source case and a target case is the analogy that minimizes:.

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